Our lab's research is featured in an article in Nature! The article is called, "Lost in translation. Unravelling the mystery of verbal dysfunction in schizophrenia could yield clues to the nature of the disease", and was written, on the basis of interviews with Gina and Deb Titone, by a journalist for Nature, David Noonan. Thank you to Nature for highlighting the importance of studying language in schizophrenia, and to David for doing such a great job in explaining our research so clearly and eloquently. See the article here.
Kirsten Weber and Gina Kuperberg present posters at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, held in Boston, MA.
Gina organizes a symposium, "Prediction, Adaptation and Plasticity of Language Processing in the Adult Brain." at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, here in Boston. Her talk was entitled "COMPREHENDING EVENTS IN CONTEXT: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION IS LANGUAGE LEARNING." Thank you for great talks by the other participants in the symposium: Florian Jaeger and David Kleinschmidt, Matt Davis, and Kara Federmeier and Eddie Wlotko. See here for abstracts.
Gina is an Invited Speaker for a workshop at Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine in Gunma, Japan. The title of her talk is "What can the neural architecture of the language system tell us about schizophrenia...and vice versa?". Thanks to Masato Fukuda, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience and Yasuki Ishizaki, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology for organizing the workshop. [Abstract]
Congratulations to Nate Delaney-Busch, who has won the 2014 Outstanding Contribution to Undergraduate Education (Doctoral Level) Award from the Tufts Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
Martin Paczynski, Ray Jackendoff, and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "When events change their nature: The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying aspectual coercion" accepted by The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. [pdf]
Eva Wittenberg, Martin Paczynski, Heike Wiese, Ray Jackendoff, and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": A sustained anterior negativity to the light verb construction" accepted by The Journal of Memory and Language. [pdf]
Goodbye and thank you to Candida Ustine, who is leaving for her new job at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Thank you for all your hard work the last 2 and a half years!
Gina is an Invited Professor at the Rovereto Winter School at the University of Trento, Italy. The theme of the lectures is "What event-related potentials can and can't tell us about language comprehension in the brain". The title of her course is "New methods in language comprehension".
Kirsten Weber, Eddie Wlotko, and Gina Kuperberg present posters at the 5th Annual Meeting of the Society of the Neurobiology of Language, held in San Diego, CA.
Gina is an Invited Speaker for the Tufts University Cognitive and Brain Sciences Series in Medford, MA. The title of her talk is "The Neurobiology of Language Comprehension: A Hierarchical Bayesian Architecture". [Abstract]
Gina is an Invited Keynote Speaker for the conference on "Investigating Semantics: How to Combine Empirical and Philosophical Approaches" in Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. The title of her talk is "What can the study of schizophrenia tells us about the neural architecture of language processing?". Thanks to Markus Werning, Erica Cosentino, Maria Spychalska and others for organizing the conference. [Abstract]
Gina and colleagues have had their paper "Altered language network activity in young people at familial high-risk for schizophrenia" accepted by Schizophrenia Research. [pdf]
Gina is an Invited Keynote speaker for the Tufts University Annual Neuroscience Retreat in Beverly, MA. The title of her talk is "How the brain makes sense of language".
Ellen Lau and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "Automatic semantic facilitation in anterior temporal cortex revealed through multimodal neuroimaging" accepted by The Journal of Neuroscience. [pdf]
Welcome to Allison Fogel, coming from the University of Maryland, who has joined as a new graduate student. She has been carrying out research on multimodal studies of language processing with Dr. Ellen Lau, and will now be investigating the cognitive neuroscience of music and language, working with Gina Kuperberg and Ani Patel.
With the beginning of a new semester, welcome to several Tufts undergraduates who are joining our lab: Annie Choong, Jennifer Kurzrok, Barbara Storch, Deepa Patil, Matt O'Conor, Nick Caggiano, Sarah Valentina Diaz, and Chelsey Rae Ott.
Goodbye and thank you to Yumiao Gong who, after spending the spring and summer as a visiting scholar in our lab, is returning home to China. Bye Yumiao!
Welcome to our new research assistant Margarita Zeitlin, who has a B.A. in Linguistics from New York University, and joins us from her time as a lab coordinator at the Snedeker Lab at Harvard.
Goodbye and thank you to Clinton Burgess who spent his summer volunteering in our lab and working with Kirsten on using EEGLAB to analyze some of our production data.
Welcome to Maria Luiza Cunha Lima! She is a visiting professor from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil.
Welcome to our new research assistant Ben Stillerman! Ben has a B.S. in Cognitive Science with a specialization in human cognition from University of California, San Diego.
Welcome to Arim Choi Perrachione, who is rejoining the lab as a senior research assistant. Arim previously worked with Dr. Kuperberg and is back to manage the lab at Tufts, and to conduct neuroimaging studies at both Tufts and MGH.
Congratulations to Trevor Blackford who defended his Masters thesis, "Twice isn't Nice: Reverse N400 Priming in Schizophrenia". On Trevor's committee were: Gina Kuperberg, Phil Holcomb, and Tali Ditman-Brunye.
See some photos of the defense.
Goodbye and good luck to Kristina Fanucci who, after being a Research Assistant in our lab since December 2010, is starting medical school at Tufts Medical Center this Fall.
See here for photos from Kristina's farewell party.
Gina is an Invited Keynote speaker for the Conference of the American Association for Computational Linguistics, Atlanta GA. The title of her talk is "Predicting Meaning: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach to understanding Language comprehension in the Brain". [Abstract]
Gina is invited to give a talk as part of the Distinguished Lecture Series at Saarbrucken University, Germany, titled "A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach to understanding Language comprehension in the Brain". Her host was Matt Crocker in the Department of Computational Linguistics. [Abstract]
Gina gives a talk at the The Language Sciences Group, UC Davis, CA titled "A predictive architecture of language comprehension". Some of the ideas from this talk are discussed in her recent book chapter.
Ellen Lau, Nate Delaney-Busch and Gina Kuperberg present posters at the 20th Anniversary meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society in San Francisco, CA. Gina was also an invited speaker, together with Sharon Thompson-Schill, Tamara Swaab "Where memory meets language: a dynamic neural architecture of language comprehension". [Abstract]
Gina gives a talk at the Distinguished Speaker series of the UCSD Department of Cognitive Science titled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of language comprehension".
Gina Kuperberg and Kristina Fanucci present a poster titled "Events along the garden path: A reduced N400 and P600 in semantically reversible discourse", Hugh Rabagliati gives a talk titled "Language processing in schizophrenia: Top-down and bottom-up effects" and Gina Kuperberg gives a talk titled "Predicting Meaning: What the Brain tells us about the Architecture of Language Comprehension" at the 26th Annual CUNY conference on Human Sentence Processing, Columbia, South Carolina.
Gina gives a talk entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of language comprehension" at Haskins Laboratories, Yale University.
Nate Delaney-Busch and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "Friendly Drug-dealers and Terrifying puppies: Affective primacy can attenuate the N400 effect in emotional discourse contexts", accepted by Cognitive Affective Behavioral Neuroscience. [pdf]
Congratulations to Neil Cohn whose PhD dissertation in our lab won the Robert J. Glushko Dissertation Prize from the Society of Cognitive Science, 2013.
Welcome to Yumaio Gong who is a Visiting Scholar in our lab from Huaihai Institute of Technology, China. She received her PhD from South China Normal University in 2011. Her current research interest is metaphorical language processing in broader context using ERPs.
Congratulations to Kirsten Weber who has had her paper "The suppression of repetition enhancement: A review of fMRI studies" accepted to Neuropsychologia. The work was done in collaboration with her colleagues at the Donders Institute: Katrien Segaert*, Kirsten Weber*, Floris de Lange, Karl Magnus Petersson and Peter Hagoort.
Welcome to Eddie Wlotko who is starting as a postdoc in our lab. Eddie received his PhD at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he carried out ERP research with Kara Federmeier. He will be working at both Tufts and MGH on ERP, MEG, and fMRI studies.
Ellen Lau, Phillip Holcomb, and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "Dissociating N400 effects of prediction from association in single word contexts" accepted by the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
Ellen Lau presents a poster at the 4th annual Neurobiology of Language Conference in San Sebastian, Spain.
Eric Fields presents a poster at the 52nd annual meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research in New Orleans, LA.
Gina gives a talk entitled "What can ERPs tell us about the dynamics of language comprehension?" and Eric Fields, Nate Delaney-Busch, Kirsten Weber, and Candida Jane Maria Ustine present posters at the 2012 Tufts Cognitive Science Conference on Language and Representation at Tufts University. This conference was held to inaugurate our new Ph.D. program in Cognitive Science.
Gina gives a talk entitled "Language: A Window into Thought in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Multimodal Neuroimaging" at the Neuroimaging Center Seminar Series at McLean Hospital.
Goodbye and good luck to Martin Paczynski who, after completing his PhD in our lab, is joining Dr. Amishi Jha's Lab at the University of Miami.
Gina participates in a week-long workshop in Tallinn, Estonia, "Unraveling the Behavioral, Neurobiological, & Genetic Components of Reading Comprehension," sponsored by The Dyslexia Foundation (TDF) and organized by by Brett Miller (NIH/NICHD) and Laurie Cutting. Gina's talk was entitled, “ERP and fMRI studies of comprehending words in context.”
Gina is an invited Professor at the Netherlands Graduate School in Linguistics (LOT), this year organized by the Utrecht Institute of Linguistics at Utrecht University, with the theme, Language, Brain and Cognition. The title of her course is 'Building Meaning from Language: Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.'
Gina sits on the PhD Defense Committee for Nan van de Meerendonk at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, the Behaviour Centre for Cognition and Radboud University, Nijmegen. Nan's thesis was entitled ''States of indecision in the brain: Electrophysiological and hemodynamic reflections of monitoring in visual language perception." Her PhD Advisor was Herman Kolk.
Martin Paczynski and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions" accepted by Journal of Memory and Language. [pdf]
Goodbye and good luck to Neil Cohn who, after completing his PhD in our lab, is joining the Center for Research in Language at UCSD, where he will be working with Marta Kutas and Jeff Elman.
Goodbye and good luck to Ellen Lau who, after completing her postdoc in our lab, is returning to the University of Maryland as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Linguistics.
Gina presents a poster at the 67th annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry in Philadelphia, PA.
Congratulations to Kana Okano who defended her PhD thesis, "The Electrophysiological Investigation on the Time-course of Japanese Word Processing." Kana's committee were: Phil Holcomb, Gina Kuperberg, Katherine Midgley, Jonathan Grainger, and Joanna Morris.
Congratulations to Neil Cohn who defended his PhD thesis, "Structure, Meaning, and Constituency in Visual Narrative Comprehension." Neil's committee were: Gina Kuperberg, Phil Holcomb, Ray Jackendoff, and Marianna Eddy.
Eric Fields presents a poster at the 5th Annual Meeting of the Social and Affective Neuroscience Society in New York City, April 2012.
The NeuroCognition Lab is very excited to welcome a new member! Julius Charles Kuypers was born on April 2nd, 2012 at 1.51am. 7 pounds, 12 ounces. Congratulations to Eva and Jan!
Congratulations to Hugh Rabagliati who has accepted a position as a Chancellor's Fellow in the Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh. Hugh will be staying with us for another few months to wrap up his projects examining top-down and bottom-up cues to language processing in schizophrenia before making his big move. In Edinburgh, Hugh will be a colleague of Mante Nieuwland, another ex-postdoc of our lab, who will also be joining the Department of Psychology as a Chancellor's Fellow in June.
Gina gives a talk as one of The Michael S. Goodman '74 Memorial Lectures, for the Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences at Brown University, Providence. "Spatiotemporal Imaging of Sentence Comprehension". She was hosted by Dr. Laura Kertz.
Congratulations to Martin Paczynski who defended his PhD thesis, "Impact of Aspectual and Animacy Information on Semantic and Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials." Martin's committee were: Gina Kuperberg (advisor), Phil Holcomb, Tali Ditman and Ray Jackendoff.
Welcome to Kirsten Weber who is starting as a postdoc in our lab. Kirsten received her PhD at the Donders Institue where she carried out fMRI research with Peter Hagoort. She will be working at both Tufts and MGH on ERP, MEG, and fMRI studies.
Eric Fields and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper "It's all about you: An ERP study of emotion and self-relevance in discourse" accepted by NeuroImage.
Gina gives a talk as part of the Neurobiology Lecture Series at the University of Texas at San Antonio. "The Neurobiology of Schizophrenia: Spatiotemporal imaging of language."
Simona Temereanca, Matti S. Hamalainen, Gina Kuperberg, Steve M. Stufflebeam, Eric Halgren, and Emery N. Brown have had their paper "Eye movements modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing" accepted for publication in the Journal of Neuroscience.
Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Ray Jackendoff, Phil Holcomb, and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper, "Structure and meaning in sequential image comprehension" accepted for publication in Cognitive Psychology.
Eric Fields learned that his poster, "ERPs reveal rapid effects of the self-positivity bias during the processing of social vignettes", Fields, E. C., Carneiro de Lima, C., Natraj, R., Tusch, E., & Kuperberg, G. R, to be presented at the 5th Annual Meeting of the Social and Affective Neuroscience Society (New York City, April 2012), received a prize for scoring among the top 5% of abstracts reviewed.
Gina gives a talk at the University Seminar on Language and Cognition, Columbia University, NY. "Spatiotemporal Imaging of Language: a Window into Thought in Psychosis".
Gina gives a talk at the Neuroscience Seminar Series, University of Illinois. "What can the study of language tell us about thought in schizophrenia: Insights from Spatiotemporal neuroimaging".
Trevor Blackford, Phil Holcomb, Jonathan Grainger and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper, "A funny thing happened on the way to articulation: N400 attenuation despite behavioral interference in picture naming" accepted for publication in Cognition.
Ellen Lau presents a poster, "The effect of prediction on the N400: MEG evidence for a left anterior temporal generator," at the Annual Neurobiology of Language Conference in Annapolis, MD.
Gina gives a talk at the Psychology Colloquium Series, Bard College. Her talk is entitled "The influences of memory on normal and abnormal language processing".
Gina is an invited participant in a Workshop for the selection of Research Domain Criteria in Cognitive Systems, for the National Institute of Mental Health.
Ellen Lau, Gina Kuperberg, Eric Fields, Neil Cohn, Nate Delaney-Busch, and Eva WIttenberg present posters at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research in Boston, MA.
Welcome to Candida Jane Maria Ustine who is starting as a Research Assistant in our lab. Candida Jane Maria graduated from Cornell University with a Master of Engineering in Electrical and Computer Engineering. She will be working at both Tufts and MGH on ERP, MEG, and fMRI studies.
Gina gives a talk in the Psychology Department, University of South Carolina, as part of a colloquium series highlighting the relationship between mind and brain. She was hosted by Fernanda Ferreira and John Henderson. Her talk is entitled "What Can ERPs and fMRI Tell Us about Language Comprehension?".
Congratulations to Hugh Rabagliati who has started a Mind Brain and Behavior (MBB) Fellowship working with Gina Kuperberg and Jesse Snedeker on an exciting project, "Testing a top-down impairment hypothesis of linguistic deficits in schizophrenia". Hugh's fellowship constitutes a collaboration across MGH, Tufts and Harvard Psychology. He will be using eye tracking methodology to understand the relationships between bottom-up and top-down processing during language processing in schizophrenia.
Gina participates in an Ernst Strüngmann Forum which discusses "Language, Music and the Brain: A Mysterious Relationship". The forum was organized by Michael Arbib and took place in Frankfurt. http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/ESforum
Check out some photos taken at the forum!
The NeuroCognition Lab is very excited to welcome a new member! Cameron Matan Ditman-Brunye was born on May 1st at 9:55 PM. Congratulations to Tali, Tad, and big brother Oliver!
Gina learned that she won an award for writing one of the Top 5 most cited articles published in the journal Brain Research during the period of 2006 - 2010. Article: Kuperberg, GR. Neural mechanisms of language comprehension: Challenges to syntax. Brain Research, Special Issue 2007; 1146:23-49.
Ellen Lau, Liam Clegg, Wonja Fairbrother, Martin Paczynski, Eric Fields, Nate Delaney-Busch, and Gina Kuperberg present posters and Neil Cohn gives a talk at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society in San Francisco, CA.
Eva Wittenberg, Ellen Lau, Liam Clegg, Nate Delaney-Busch, and Gina Kuperberg present posters at the CUNY 2011 Conference on Human Sentence Processing at Stanford University.
Martin Paczynski and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper, "Electrophysiological evidence for use of the animacy hierarchy, but not thematic role assignment during verb argument processing" accepted for publication in a Special Issue of Language and Cognitive Processes: the Cognitive Neuroscience of Semantic Processing.
Tali Ditman, Don Goff and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper, "Slow and steady: Sustained effects of lexico-semantic associations mediate referential impairments in schizophrenia" accepted for publication in Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience.
Welcome to Kristina Fanucci who is starting as a Research Assistant at Tufts and MGH. Kristina majored in Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT. She will be working on ERP and fMRI studies at both Tufts and MGH.
Gina learned that she won an Award from 'Brain Research' for most cited of all articles published in this journal in 2007 and 2008. Article: Kuperberg, GR. Neural mechanisms of language comprehension: Challenges to syntax. Brain Research, Special Issue 2007; 1146:23-49.
Welcome to Scott Burns who is joining the MGH side of the lab. Scott comes from Washington University in St. Louis where he completed a Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering where he worked on designing and implementing of a brain-computer interface using off-the-shelf hardware. He is now switching gears and will be working with Ellen Lau and Gina Kuperberg on a multimodal imaging project which aims to combine MEG, ERPs and fMRI to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of semantic processing.
Mante Nieuwland, Tali Ditman and Gina Kuperberg have had their paper, "On the incrementality of pragmatic processing: An ERP investigation of informativeness and pragmatic abilities" accepted for publication in Journal of Memory and Language.
Gina gives the Joseph Zubin Memorial Award Lecture at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Her talk is entitled "Spatiotemporal Imaging of Thought in Schizophrenia".
Martin Paczynski, Trevor Blackford, Suiping Wang, Tali Ditman, Marianna Eddy
and Gina Kuperberg present posters at the annual Cognitive Neuroscience Society meeting held in
Gina gives a talk at the Centre for Research on Language, Mind and Brain, McGill University, Montreal, as part of their Distinguished Lecture Series. Her talk is entitled "Streams of Language Processing in the Brain: evidence from ERPs and fMRI".
Neil Cohn defends his Masters Thesis, "Balancing Grammar and Semantics in 'Comics': Global Structure in Sequential Image Processing". His advisers are Ray Jackendoff, Gina Kuperberg and Phil Holcomb.
Sophie De Grauwe, Abigail Swain, Phil Holcomb, Tali Ditman and Gina
Kuperberg have had their paper, "Electrophysiological insights into the
processing of nominal metaphors" accepted for publication in
Martin Paczynski, Neil Cohn and Ming Xiang present posters at CUNY, held in New York City.
Gina has had a pair of articles accepted for publication in Language
and Linguistic Compass: 'Language in schizophrenia Part 1: an Introduction'
and 'Language in schizophrenia Part 2: What can psycholinguistics bring to
the study of schizophrenia and vice versa?'.
Gina gives a talk at a workshop on Language-Valence Interactions, organized by Daniel Casasanto and Jos van Berkum at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Her talk is entitled "ERP and fMRI studies of Emotional Language".
Gina Kuperberg, Martin Paczynski and Tali Ditman have had their paper, "Establishing causal coherence across sentences: An ERP study" accepted for publication in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
Martin Paczynski, Trevor Blackford and Tali Ditman present posters at
Psychonomics which was in Boston this year.
Goodbye to Suiping Wang who is returning to China after her year's sabbatical with us. We will miss her in the lab, but we look forward to continue working with her to see through her project examining the effects of task on the modulation of the N400 and P600 ERP components.
Welcome to Eva Wittenberg who has joined the lab as a visiting scholar,
funded by a scholarship provided by the European Recovery Program and
administered by the German National Academic Foundation. Eva is coming from
the University of Potsdam where she completed a masters degree working with
Heike Wiese. She will be working with Gina Kuperberg, Ray Jackendoff, Heike
Wiese and Maria Pinango, carrying out an ERP study examining the neural
basis of light verb constructions.
Martin Paczynski presents a poster at the Neurobiology of Language conference in Chicago: The Impact of Grammatical Voice And Subject Noun Animacy on Verb Processing.
Gina gives a talk at the Center for Research in Language, at the University of California, San Diego, entitled "What can ERPs and fMRI tell us about language comprehension?"
Welcome to Nate Delaney-Busch, coming from the University of California
Davis, who has joined as a new graduate student. Nate has been carrying out
neuroendocrinology research in prairie voles. This may seem a far cry from
working in a cognitive neuroscience lab, but Nate has also worked with
schizophrenia patients in a mental health clinic and is particularly
interested in applying basic cognitive neuroscience research to
understanding neurocognitive underpinnings of this disorder.
Welcome to Ellen Lau who has joined as a postdoc, coming from the University of Maryland where she completed her PhD with Colin Phillips and David Poeppel. Ellen will be working closely with Matti Hamalainen and the Multimodal Imaging core at the Martinos Center on MEG and fMRI projects examining the neural basis of the N400.
Gina speaks at The Annual NARSAD Scientific Symposium, Boston, MA. Her talk is entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Language and Thought in Schizophrenia".
Congratulations to Martin Paczynski who defended his Masters thesis, "Event-Related Potential Evidence for Use of Animacy Hierarchy, but not Thematic Role Type, in the Processing of Direct Object Arguments in Active English Sentences". Martin's committee were: Gina Kuperberg (advisor), Phil Holcomb, Ray Jackendoff, David Caplan and Neal Perlmutter.
Goodbye and thank you to Arim Choi and Abigail Swain who have been research
coordinators in the lab over the past two years. Arim will be a graduate
student in Communication Sciences and Disorders at Northwestern University
where she plans to study the encoding of speech along the auditory pathway.
Abby will be studying at Bentley University to get an MBA and an MS in Human
Gina speaks at a symposium organized by Jeff Zacks, "New Findings in the Neuroscience of Discourse." at the Society for Text and Discourse Nineteenth Annual Meeting, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Her talk is entitled, "What can ERPs and fMRI tell us about language comprehension? Streams of processing in the brain."
Gina Kuperberg, Arim Choi, Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, and Ray Jackendoff have had their paper, "Electrophysiological correlates of complement coercion," accepted for publication in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
The Kuperberg Lab welcomes Eric Fields, our new Research Technologist. Eric received his B.S.,B.A. in Psychology and Philosophy from Middle Tennessee State University and has a background in Social Psychology. His most recent work, with Dr. William Langston, looked at individual differences in moral judgment.