Purpose:To compare the clinical impact of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to that of combined PET and computed tomography (CT) performed on the same day in patients with cancer.Materials and Methods:This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent for study enrollment, including the possibility to use their imaging and clinical data in future evaluations. A total of 134 patients with cancer with a non-central nervous system primary neoplasm underwent same-day fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT and FDG PET/MR imaging. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were independently interpreted by teams of radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Four readers, divided into two teams composed of one radiologist and one nuclear medicine physician each, read all 134 studies. The referring physician classified discordance between PET/CT and PET/MR observations either as findings affecting clinical management or as findings not affecting clinical management. Data were compared with the chi2 test.Results:Findings affecting clinical management were noted for PET/CT studies but not for PET/MR studies in two (1.5%) of 134 patients and for PET/MR studies but not for PET/CT studies in 24 (17.9%) of 134 patients. The discrepancies between findings affecting clinical management detected with PET/MR imaging over those detected with PET/CT were significant (P http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13131306/-/DC1.