Neurocircuitry models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depression (MD) are described, focusing on relevant supporting neuroimaging data. Corticostriatothalamocortical circuitry is implicated in OCD. In MD, the relation between "dorsal" and "ventral" cortical compartments is emphasized; the amygdala, hippocampus, and pregenual anterior cingulate are implicated in the pathophysiology of MD and are potential targets for treatment. The neuroanatomy of psychiatric neurosurgical procedures and related neuroimaging findings are reviewed. Finally, anticipated future directions of research in this field are discussed.